Electronic Experiments: Diode, Transistor and Operational Amplifier
These are collection of articles that showcased experiments on electronics.
In semiconductor diodes, There are three biasing conditions for our diode: no bias, forward bias, and reverse bias. Biasing a diode means applying a voltage to it so that the diode activates and conducts electricity. No bias condition occurs when the voltage supplied to it is zero. It is a thermal equilibrium state where we have a balanced number on both ends. At a forward bias, there is a sufficient voltage to enables current to pass through the junction. In contrast, a reverse bias state occurs when a negative voltage is applied that causes the depletion region to widen.
The write-up discussed the biasing conditions of a semiconductor diode. It includes actual experiment results to understand what happened to a diode at no bias, forward bias, and reverse bias conditions. The experiment shows the circuits and tabulated values obtained from the experiments.
A rectifier is a simple diode or group of diodes which converts the alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). Rectifiers are classified into different types based on the number of diodes used in the circuit or arrangement of diodes in the circuit. The basic types of rectifiers are: half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier. In this topic, we will focus on the half-wave rectifier and full wave rectifier. Now we’ll take a look about its definition and how it works.
The article explains the rectifier and the basic concept of rectification. I presented two experiments and showcased the different output waveforms we can get from a haftwave and fullwave rectifier. The plot shown in the article is from the data capture by an oscilloscope.
A bipolar junction transistor is type of transistor that is commonly used for amplification or it could be used in switching purposes for it is a type of a device that is a current controlled. It has three terminal sides; the Emitter is the one who emits or supplies any charge carriers, in this part it is heavily doped that is intended for the injection of large charges going to the base section.
The write-up showcased the three common transistor amplifier set up. I showed the circuit for the common base, common emitter, and common collector, which I used in the experiment. In the write-up, I explained the different characteristics and responses shown in the plotted waveforms.
Field Effect Transistor, FET is an active semiconductor device for the electronics industry. FET is used in many circuits constructed from individual components in areas from RF technology to power control and electronic switching common amplifiers. The main application for the field-effect transistor, however, lies within the FET integrated circuits. In this application, FET circuits can use only a small amount of power, and this enables large-scale integrated circuits.
I explored the three distinct modes of operation of a field-effect transistor. In the common source, we can see in the plots that we amplified the input signal. On the other hand, common gates have a level of impedance between the input and output, which is inversely proportional. It resulted in a lower gain. The common drain is in reverse that of the common gate, which has high input impedance leads to low output impedance.
Operational amplifiers or op-amps are one of the most common circuit components in analog electronic circuits. They're simple to operate and can produce near-perfect analog circuits. The op-amp is a differential amplifier circuit block that allows several different electronic amplifier circuits to be constructed with just a few other components. The Operational Amplifier is widely used for changing the voltage amplitude which includes the amplitude and polarity, oscillators, filter circuits, and other types of instrumentation circuits.
There are two things focused on in this article, aside from understanding the operational amplifier. I presented two experiments involving the inverting and noninverting amplifiers. We can notice that inverting amplifiers have lower gain when we increase feedback resistance. The only difference is that the noninverting input or the positive input of the device is getting feedback from the output thus having a positive gain.