Reconciliation Poverty reduction plan.

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Although the definition of poverty has changed over time, it still primarily refers to the inability to meet basic needs (Britha Mikelsen, 2003). According to Soegijanto Soegijoko (1997), poverty refers to a condition of squalor that arises not because the poor want it to but rather because they are unable to stop it.

Poverty may be caused by a variety of factors, including those that are natural, economic, social, structural, and cultural. Natural and economic poverty result from the lack of natural, human, and other resources, which also restricts production opportunities and prevents them from advancing development. Structural and social poverty are caused by uneven development outcomes, institutional configurations, and development policies. Contrarily, the factors that maintain someone's poverty are their self-satisfied attitudes or ways of life. The causes of poverty exist both within and outside of the poor. Individual attitudes and poor human resources are two internal contributing factors. The scarcity of natural resources, social and institutional structures, development policies, the lack of employment opportunities, and competition are examples of external factors that contribute to the marginalization of the poor.

Two categories of poverty can be distinguished based on time patterns: (1) persistent poverty, which is hereditary or chronic and includes isolated or resource-constrained areas, and (2) cyclical poverty, which is poverty that follows the pattern of the general economic cycle. (3) Seasonal poverty, a form of poverty that many farmers and fishermen who raise crops for food encounter. (4) Accidental poverty, which is poverty resulting from natural disasters or from actions taken by the government.

Poverty can also be distinguished by comparison with a specific metric or with other individuals or groups within society. Absolute poverty is measured using the poverty line or other standards that fairly reflect the level of poverty. Although relative poverty can be described by the Lorentz Curve and the size of the gap can be estimated using the Gini Ratio, relative poverty is actually determined by comparing the number of groups to the total number of groups.

According to the World Bank's suggested strategy for reducing poverty, it has advanced from job creation, income generation, the improvement of health and education, protection, and poor people's empowerment every ten years.

Andre Bayo Ala (1981) cited Gunnar Adler Karlsson's strategy to fight poverty, which includes: (1) strategies in the short term, namely allocating sufficient resources to the poor. Encouragement of neighborhood self-help as well as the development of job opportunities, higher incomes, and better income distribution are two long-term approaches to reducing poverty. As a long-term objective, it is possible to enhance and realize the dignity of personal and social life.

The two main goals of the government's strategy to reduce poverty are to protect families and community groups that momentarily require assistance and to support chronically poor communities by empowering them and preventing new poverty. The plan is then broken down into three initiatives that specifically target the poor: supplying them with their basic needs, creating a social security system, and fostering a business-friendly environment. As a means of escaping poverty, the poor have their own strategies. Techniques used include moving or saving money, hiring family members, increasing working hours, or borrowing from unofficial institutions.

The government's policy concepts used in programs to reduce poverty can be distinguished based on the planning traditions and methodologies that support them. Planning traditions come in at least four different varieties, according to John Friedmann. The first is planning as social reform, in which the government develops and plans various development guidelines and directions that the community will accept and implement, and the second is planning as policy analysis, in which the government and other relevant parties develop and plan various development guidelines and directions that can be accepted and implemented based on scientific data analysis.

  1. Planning as social mobilization: Planning for development must be done by the community and guided by various ideas and ideologies that are already deeply ingrained in their culture and psyches.

The types of poverty alleviation programs the government has put in place and the emphasis given to different strategies, however, can be found by examining the development model that underpins these programs. The development models that developing countries employ can be divided into four broad categories. Development Model I is primarily concerned with increasing national income. The two primary focuses of development model II are the satisfaction of basic needs and equity. Development Model III seeks to improve the quality of human resources by involving communities and target groups in identifying needs and participating in the development process. While.

In the era of globalization and regional autonomy, Development Model IV's main objective is to increase the competitiveness of the nation.

In an effort to lessen poverty, a program's planning approach, development model, and implementation can all be assessed. Program targeting and the data used to determine the targets, the role of the local government, the general public, and the program's target recipients, as well as the program's implementation at the governmental and community levels, are among the criteria used to evaluate the effectiveness of programs to reduce poverty.